American Prometheus is the first full-scale biography of J. Robert Oppenheimer, "father of the atomic bomb," the brilliant, charismatic physicist who led the effort to capture the awesome fire of the sun for his country in time of war. Immediately after Hiroshima, he became the most famous scientist of his generation-one of the iconic figures of the twentieth century, the embodiment of modern man confronting the consequences of scientific progress.
Here, for the first time, in a brilliant, panoramic portrait by the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Making of the Atomic Bomb, is the definitive, often shocking story of the politics and the science behind the development of the hydrogen bomb and the birth of the Cold War. Based on secret files in the United States and the former Soviet Union, this monumental work of history discloses how and why the United States decided to create the bomb that would dominate world politics for more than forty years.
A national bestseller, this lushly illustrated book is an inclusive celebration of inspiring women who transformed the world and created social change.Dead Feministsis agorgeously illustrated letterpress-inspired book showcasing feminist history with a vision for a better future.
The General and the Genius reveals how two extraordinary men pulled off the greatest scientific feat of the twentieth century. Leslie Richard Groves of the Army Corps of Engineers, who had made his name by building the Pentagon in record time and under budget, was made overlord of the impossibly vast scientific enterprise known as the Manhattan Project. His mission: to beat the Nazis to the atomic bomb. So he turned to the nation's preeminent theoretical physicist, J. Robert Oppenheimer--the chain-smoking, martini-quaffing son of wealthy Jewish immigrants, whose background was riddled with communist associations--Groves's opposite in nearly every respect. In their three-year collaboration, the iron-willed general and the visionary scientist led a brilliant team in a secret mountaintop lab and built the fearsome weapons that ended the war but introduced the human race to unimaginable new terrors.
Life and Times of the Atomic Bomb takes up the question of how the world found itself in the age of nuclear weapons - and how it has since tried to find a way out of it. Albert I. Berger charts the story of nuclear weapons from their origins through the Atomic Age and the Cold War up through the present day, arguing that an understanding of the history of nuclear weapons is crucial to modern efforts to manage them.
Describes in human, political, and scientific detail the complete story of how the bomb was developed, from the turn-of-the-century discovery of the power of the atom, to the first bombs dropped on Japan.
This book provides everything readers need to know about the Manhattan Project, the U.S. program that led to the development of the atomic bomb during World War II. It begins with a detailed introduction to the project and includes an alphabetical collection of relevant entries on such topics as the Enola Gay, the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb; Enrico Fermi, creator of the first nuclear reactor; Hiroshima, the target of the first atomic bomb; and Robert Oppenheimer, director of the Manhattan Project.
The obliteration of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the world to a stand still. This unimaginable shock confirmed to the world that the race to develop a working atomic weapon during World War II had been won by the American-led international effort. Horrific and controversial even today, these first uses of the atomic bomb had intense ramifications not only on the continued development of the bomb, but also on politics and popular culture.
In this book, veteran New Mexico journalist V. B. Price assembles a vast amount of information on more than fifty years of deterioration of the state's environment, most of it hitherto available only in scattered newspaper articles and government reports. Viewing New Mexico as a microcosm of global ecological degradation, Price's is the first book to give the general public a realistic perspective on the problems surrounding New Mexico's environmental health and resources.
In a Massachusetts school, seventy-three disabled children were spoon fed radioactive isotopes along with their morning oatmeal....In an upstate New York hospital, an eighteen-year-old woman, believing she was being treated for a pituitary disorder, was injected with plutonium by Manhattan Project doctors....At a Tennessee prenatal clinic, 829 pregnant women were served "vitamin cocktails"--in truth, drinks containing radioactive iron--as part of their prenatal treatmen.... In 1945, the seismic power of atomic energy was already well known to researchers, but the effects of radiation on human beings were not. Fearful that plutonium would cause a cancer epidemic among workers, Manhattan Project doctors embarked on a human experiment that was as chilling as it was closely guarded: the systematic injection of unsuspecting Americans with radioactive plutonium.
This account details the author's involvement in the development of the first atomic bomb, his contributions to international control of atomic weapons and his role in the early development of atomic military doctrine during the Cold War. Nichols was wartime district engineer for the Manhattan Project, general manager of the Atomic Energy Commission and, for three decades, a consultant in the atomic power industry.
"In this study, two scholars examine historical perceptions of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Structured as a balanced dialogue, the authors analyze how the attacks are remembered by Japanese and others as well as the various debates surrounding the bombings."
Albert Einstein and J. Robert Oppenheimer, two iconic scientists of the twentieth century, belonged to different generations, with the boundary marked by the advent of quantum mechanics. By exploring how these men differed--in their worldview, in their work, and in their day--this book provides powerful insights into the lives of two critical figures and into the scientific culture of their times. I
On July 16, 1945, just weeks before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that brought about the surrender of Japan and the end of World War II, the United States unleashed the world's first atomic bomb at the Trinity testing site located in the remote Tularosa Valley in south-central New Mexico. Immensely more powerful than any weapon the world had seen, the bomb's effects on the surrounding and downwind communities of plants, animals, birds, and humans have lasted decades. In The First Atomic Bomb Janet Farrell Brodie explores the history of the Trinity test and those whose contributions have rarely, if ever, been discussed--the men and women who constructed, served, and witnessed the first test--as well as the downwinders who suffered the consequences of the radiation.
The US decision to drop an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 remains one of the most controversial events of the twentieth century. However, the controversy over the rights and wrongs of dropping the bomb has tended to obscure a number of fundamental and sobering truths about the development of this fearsome weapon.The principle of killing thousands of enemy civilians from the air was already well established by 1945 and had been practised on numerous occasions by both sides during the Second World War. Moreover, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima was conceived and built by an international community of scientists, not just by the Americans. Other nations (including Japan and Germany) were also developing atomic bombs in the first half of the 1940s, albeit hapharzardly. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine anycombatant nation foregoing the use of the bomb during the war had it been able to obtain one. The international team of scientists organized by the Americans just got there first.As this fascinating new history shows, the bomb dropped by a US pilot that hot August morning in 1945 was in many ways the world's offspring, in both a technological and a moral sense. And it was the world that would have to face its consequences, strategically, diplomatically, and culturally, in the years ahead.
This book describes in fascinating detail the variety of experiments sponsored by the U.S. government in which human subjects were exposed to radiation, often without their knowledge or consent. Based on a review of hundreds of thousands of heretofore unavailable or classified documents, this Report tells a gripping story of the intricate relationship between science and the state.
Pais introduces us to a precocious youth who sped through Harvard in three years, made signal contributions to quantum mechanics while in his twenties, and was instrumental in the growth of American physics in the decade before the Second World War, almost single-handedly bringing it to a state of prominence. He paints a revealing portrait of Oppenheimer's life in Los Alamos, where in twenty remarkable, feverish months, and under his inspired guidance, the first atomic bomb was designed and built, a success that made Oppenheimer America's most famous scientist
Cowan weaves in intriguing anecdotes about a large cast of distinguished scientists--all related in his wry, self-deprecating manner. Besides his nearly forty-year career at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Cowan also helped establish banks in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, served as treasurer of the group that created the Santa Fe Opera, and in the late 1980s participated in founding the Santa Fe Institute and served as its first president. He anchored its interdisciplinary work in his quest to find "common ground between the relatively simple world of natural science and the daily, messy world of human affairs."
1939: fascism spreads across Europe, Franco marches on Barcelona and two German chemists discover the processes of atomic fission. In Berkeley, California, theoretical physicists recognise the horrendous potential of this new science: a weapon that draws its power from the very building blocks of the universe.Struggling to cast off his radical past and thrust into a position of power and authority, the charismatic J Robert Oppenheimer races to win the 'battle of the laboratories' and create a weapon so devastating that it would bring about an end not just to the Second World War but to all war.
Many myths have grown up around President Harry S. Truman's decision to use nuclear weapons against Imperial Japan. In destroying these myths, Truman and the Bomb will discomfort both Truman's critics and his supporters, and force historians to reexamine what they think they know about the end of the Pacific War.
t the start of World War II the United States conducted secret research on nuclear fission in the quest to develop the atomic bomb. On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was successfully tested in New Mexico. On August 6, 1945, President Harry S. Truman authorized the drop of two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, swiftly ending World War II. No atomic weapon has been detonated in wartime since.
PICTURES FROM A HIROSHIMA SCHOOLYARD presents the aftermath of the first atomic bomb through the remarkable drawings and stories of surviving Japanese school children who were part of an extraordinary, compassionate exchange with their American counterparts after the war.
COUNTDOWN TO ZERO traces the history of the atomic bomb from its origins to the present state of global affairs. The film makes a compelling case for worldwide nuclear disarmament, an issue more topical than ever.
When German physicists split the atom, Albert Einstein warned President Roosevelt of the potential for “extremely powerful bombs of a new type.” Chart the course of the nuclear bomb from this letter through the first nuclear chain reaction led by physicist Enrico Fermi, the Manhattan Project, and devastation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The scientists and engineers who helped build the world's first nuclear weapon reflect on their accomplishments and legacy. The explosion took place, appropriately, in an area of the New Mexico desert called jornada del muerto—the journey of death. At 5:30 AM on July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was detonated and a new era began.
Learn all about The Pacific Theater of World War II and the pivotal battles along the way. Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? Who were the Allied Powers? What happened at the Battle of Iwo Jima? What was the Manhattan Project? Why did the United States drop the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki? The answers to these questions and more are covered in depth with detailed graphics, diagrams and dynamic video that reinforce important concepts.
In 1942, the United States government embarked upon an endeavor it hoped would put a quick and definite end to World War II. Under extraordinary secrecy and with unlimited funds, the top scientists of the day were brought together to work on the Manhattan Project - and on August 6, 1945, three years of technological advancements were exploded above Hiroshima in the form of a uranium-fission bomb. This episode of Tech Effect profiles the technology surrounding that fateful moment. The advanced B-29 bomber, the sophisticated Norden bombsight, Mamiya and K-20 aerial cameras, telemetry canisters, and even Teflon have a place in this grim yet remarkable story.
The Bomb tells the story of the most powerful and destructive device ever invented. Learn how humans harnessed this incredible power and what challenges we have faced living with it since 1945. With newly restored footage of nuclear weaponry, some of which has only recently been declassified, go behind the scenes of the first atomic bomb, revealing how it was developed and how it changed the planet, ushering in a new era and reshaping our lives even today.
Hiroshima No Pika is an animated film made by Noriaki Tsuchimoto based on the award-winning children’s book by the Japanese artist Toshi Maruki. Through Maruki's heart-rending but beautiful water color illustrations, the film tells the story of a young girl and her family who live through the horrific bombing of Hiroshima.
J. Robert Oppenheimer's life and legacy are inextricably linked to America's most famous top-secret initiative - the Manhattan Project. This biography presents a complex and revealing portrait of one of America's most influential scientists.
The Atomic Heritage Foundation (AHF), founded by Cynthia Kelly in 2002, is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization in Washington, DC, dedicated to the preservation and interpretation of the Manhattan Project and the Atomic Age and its legacy.
The OpenNet database provides easy, timely access to approximately 512,000 bibliographic references and over 130,000 with attached full-text, including information declassified in response to Freedom of Information Act requests. In addition to these documents, OpenNet references older document collections from several DOE sources.
The National Museum of Nuclear Science & History was established in 1969 as an intriguing place to learn the story of the Atomic Age, from early research of nuclear development through today’s peaceful uses of nuclear technology.
The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The National Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world.
The Nevada National Security Site and its related facilities help ensure the security of the United States and its allies by: supporting the stewardship of the nation’s nuclear deterrent; providing nuclear and radiological emergency response capabilities and training; contributing to key nonproliferation and arms control initiatives; executing national-level experiments in support of the National Laboratories; working with national security customers and other federal agencies on important national security activities; and providing long-term environmental stewardship of the NNSS’s Cold War legacy.
The mission of the Energy Department is to ensure America’s security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions. Learn more.
A multi-disciplinary database which offers information in many areas of academic study. This database supports high-level research in the key areas of academic study by providing access to journals, periodicals, reports, books and more.
Academic Video Online delivers over 70,000 titles spanning anthropology, business, counseling, film, health, history, and music. Browse Academy®, Emmy®, and Peabody®-winning films, video from PBS, BBC, 60 MINUTES, National Geographic, Annenberg Learner, BroadwayHD™, A+E Networks’ HISTORY®, and more.
Educational videos on a variety of topics including humanities, social sciences, business, economics, science, mathematics, health, medicine, technical education, family and consumer sciences, careers and job search, guidance and counseling and archival films and newsreels
The man-made element, plutonium, number 94 in the periodic table, is dangerous because it not only kills outright with burns and radiation sickness, but it causes cancer, sometimes decades after a person is exposed. Once plutonium is introduced into the body it cannot be gotten rid of: It takes 24,065 years for half the plutonium to decay.
Thousands of African American women and men contributed to the Manhattan Project, but many of their stories remain untold. They were an important part of the workforce, especially at Hanford and Oak Ridge. More than 15,000 African Americans arrived in the Tri-Cities during the Manhattan Project. Approximately 7,000 African Americans worked in Oak Ridge for the Manhattan Project.
The atomic bomb was developed toward the end of World War II (1939–1945), ushering in the start of the "nuclear age." Such weapons could devastate large areas with relative ease. Furthermore, their effects lingered long after the initial blast, destroying natural environments and making people ill.
The Homestead Act of 1862 provided 160 acres of land to United States citizens who lived on, farmed, and improved the land for at least five years. Los Alamos County like much of the western United States was home to many homesteaders. Although people had been using the Pajarito Plataeu on a seasonal basis, homesteading originally began in March 1887 when Juan Louis Garcia filed for a homesteaded. The majority of the homesteaders on the plataeu were Hispanic.
B & T Metals: The African American-Owned Company that Helped Win the Race for the Atomic Bomb After he died in the summer of 1948, The Ohio State News recognized Mr. Kilgore’s tenacity in building a major industry, a feat “that many industrialists considered impossible.” What the newspaper did not know at the time was that Kilgore’s company had also helped the United States win its top-secret race for the atomic bomb.
In December 1953, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) suspended the security clearance of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, and after a four-week, closed-door hearing in April and May 1954, formally revoked that clearance. In June 1954, the AEC released a redacted version of the hearing transcript, (see AEC press release), with security classified information deleted, published by the Government Printing Office (GPO) under the title, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: Transcript of Hearing before Personnel Security Board.
Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s.
The Manhattan Project: Resources is a joint collaboration between the Department of Energy’s Office of Classification and Office of History and Heritage Resources. This effort is designed to disseminate information and documentation on the Manhattan Project to a broad audience including scholars, students, and the general public.
Synchrony, as a dimension of human connection with nature, transcended the disharmony of bombing upheaval. Although further exploration is necessary, these findings serve as evidence about the essence of healing as related to nature for those in extreme environments.
This article offers a critical examination of the contemporary imperative to ‘trust science’ from the point of view of Lacanian psychoanalysis. It begins by putting contemporary scientific research in the twentieth-century historical context of the ‘military-industrial complex’ (D. Eisenhower) in which science and technology become symbiotically connected to the military.
Ten years after the bombing of Hiroshima Sadako Sasaki's family and friends raised money to have a statue built in her memory and the many other children that perished due to the effects of the atomic bomb.
A controversial figure to this day, J. Robert Oppenheimer led the development and construction of the world's first atomic weapons. This article series explores his life from a young man, to his role in the Manhattan Project, to his blacklisting at the height of the Cold War's "Red Scare."
This lecture will present the extraordinary historical genesis and the thoughts of great men and women in the development of the atomic bomb. In addition, the difficult military and political decisions will be covered such as: target selection, the debate over whether to give the Japanese government a demonstration of its power and whether to use it at all. Also, were the German and Japanese scientists developing there own bomb? Declassified top secret documents now help in answering some of these questions.
The Operation Plan covers and outlines the pertinent missions and tasks of Task Group 7.1. It also is intended as a guide to assist personnel in planning and carrying out their individual tasks since it represents a record of agreements arrived at prior to its compilation.