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Research Guides@TCC Libraries

MLA 9

Changes to MLA 9

In previous editions, students and researchers creating an MLA website citation were not required to include the URL. However, beginning with MLA 8, it is recommended that you include the URL when creating a citation for a website unless your teacher instructs you otherwise. Even though web pages and URLs can be taken down or changed, it is still possible to learn about the source from the information seen in the URL.

When including URLs in a citation, http:// and https:// should be omitted from the website’s address (Handbook 195). Additionally, If you are creating a citation that will be read on a digital device, it is helpful to make the URL clickable so that readers can directly access the source themselves.

If the website’s publisher includes a permalink or DOI (Digital Object Identifier), these are preferable as they are not changeable in the same manner as URLs. Whether you include a URL, permalink, or DOI, this information should be included in the location portion of your citation.

Another change that occurred with the eighth edition that impacts how to cite a website in MLA is the removal of the date the website was accessed. While you may still find it useful to include this information or your teacher may request it, it is no longer a mandatory piece of your citation. Should you choose to add this optional information, you may list it after the URL in the following manner:

  • Accessed Day Month Year.
  • Accessed 2 May 1998.
  • Accessed 31 Apr. 2001.
  • Accessed 17 Sept. 2010.

MLA 9: Citing Websites With an Author

To make an MLA 9 citation for a website, you will need the following pieces of information:

  • author’s name
  • title of the article or page
  • title of the website
  • name of the publisher (Note: Only include the name of the publisher when it differs from the name of the website.)
  • date the page or site was published (if available)
  • URL

Citing a Website in MLA

Place the author’s name in reverse order, the last name first, followed by a comma, and then the first name followed by a period. The title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published or posted. Finally, end with the URL, permalink, or DOI, followed by a period.

Works Cited  
Structure

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the Website, Name of the Publisher, date of publication in day month year format, URL.

Example

McNary, Dave. “Keanu Reeves, Alex Winter Returning for ‘Bill and Ted Face the Music.’” Variety, Penske Media Corporation, 8 May 2018, variety.com/2018/film/news/bill-and-ted-3-keanu-reeves-alex-winter-1202802946/.

View Screenshot | Cite your source

In-text website citation with one author

The in-text citation for a website with an author is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Author’s Last Name).

Example

(McNary).

Cite your source

An APA parenthetical citation is similar, except it also includes the year the source was published.

To learn more about formatting MLA in-text & parenthetical citations, be sure to check out the rest of EasyBib.com’s resources and citation guides.


How to cite a website with two authors in MLA 9

According to Section 5.7 of the Handbook, for a website with two authors, place the authors’ names in the same order as the source (similar to an APA citation). The first name should be formatted in reverse order as was done for a single author. The second name, however, is written as First Name Last Name and is followed by a period, as demonstrated in the template that follows:

Works Cited  
Structure

Last name, First name of Author 1, and First Name Last Name of Author 2. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website, Publisher, date published in day month year format, URL.

Example

Wadhwa, Vivek, and Alex Salkever. “How Can We Make Technology Healthier for Humans?” Wired, Condé Nast, 26 June 2018, www.wired.com/story/healther-technology-for-humans/.

View Screenshot | Cite your source

In-text website citation with two authors

The in-text citation for a website with two authors should include both authors’ last names, in the order in which they are listed in the source and your works cited:

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Author #1 and Author #2).

Example

(Wadhwa and Salkever).

Cite your source


How to cite a website with three or more authors in MLA 9

For a source with three or more authors, you should place the authors’ names in the same order as the source. The first name is listed in reverse order and is followed by a comma and et al. Et al is the abbreviation for et alia, a gender-neutral Latin phrase meaning “and others.”

Works Cited  
Structure

First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website, Publisher, date published in day month year format, DOI or URL.

Example

Marsh, Joanne, et al. “Generating Research Income: Library Involvement in Academic Research.” Library and Information Research, vol. 36, no. 113, 18 Dec. 2012, pp. 48-61, https:doi.org/10.29173/lirg539

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In-text website citation with 3+ authors

The in-text citation for a website with three or more authors should contain only the first author’s last name, followed by et al. (Handbook 232):

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Last Name 1 et al.).

Example

(Marsh et al.).

Cite your source

Click on this page if you’re looking for information on how to create an APA in-text citation.


MLA 9 Citation for Websites with No Author

Sometimes, websites do not state who wrote the information on the page. When no author is listed, you may omit the author information from the MLA citation for the website and begin, instead, with the title (Handbook 108).

Works Cited  
Structure

“Title of Web Page.” Title of Website, Publisher, date published in day month year format, URL.

Example

“One Health and Disease: Tick-Borne.” National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, www.nps.gov/articles/one-health-disease-ticks-borne.htm.

View Screenshot | Cite your source

Note about web pages by organizations/corporations: Often, web pages are published by organizations or corporations with no author indicated. In these cases, you can assume that the publisher also authored the web page (like the example above). Since the author and publisher are the same in these cases, you can skip showing an author and just indicate the organization/corporation as the publisher (Handbook 119).

In-text website citation with no author

The in-text citation for a website without an author is noted with the first noun phrase or words in the title in quotations and parenthesis, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text citation  
Structure

(Title of Web Page).

Example

(“One Health and Disease”).

View Screenshot | Cite your source


MLA 9 Citation for Websites Without a Formal Title

When citing a web page that does not include a formal title, it is acceptable to include a description of the page. Do not place the description in italics or quotation marks. Follow the description with the name of the website.

Works Cited  
Structure

Description of web page. Title of Website, Publisher, date published in day month year format, URL.

Example

General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm.

Cite your source

In-text website citation without a title

The in-text citation for a website without a formal title uses a shortened version of the webpage description for the in-text citation. Use the first noun phrase of the description from your Works Cited citation in parenthesis, followed by a period. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Shortened Description of Webpage).

Example

(General Information).


MLA 9 Citation for Social Media Websites

In an increasingly digital world, social media platforms have become one of the most popular sources students turn to when writing a research paper. From Black history facts, to quotes from notable people, such as Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill, social media has become a mega influence in our world.

When citing social media in your work,  follow the same format as an MLA citation for a website. Here are some examples of ways you can cite various social media platforms in your work:


How to cite Twitter in MLA 9

Many notable individuals use Twitter as a platform to share intriguing ideas. It’s a shame Twitter was unavailable to long-gone scientists, authors, and presidents such as Albert EinsteinMark Twain, and Abraham Lincoln. Luckily, we have the Twitter profiles of today’s great minds at our fingertips!

To cite a tweet, you will begin with the account holder’s name and their Twitter handle in square brackets, followed by a period (Handbook 118). After this, in quotations, you should enter the full text of the tweet, including any hashtags. The publisher, Twitter, is then listed in italics, followed by the date the tweet was posted in day, month, year format. Finally, include a URL to the tweet followed by a period.

Reference List  
Structure

Last name, First name [Username]. “Tweet Message.” Twitter, date posted, URL.

Example

Miranda, Lin-Manuel [@Lin_Manuel]. “Gmorning from a sky still blue above the smoke from a world still full of love and hope beyond the headlines from your own best self, whispering, ‘I’m still here, and it’s never too late to put me to work.’” Twitter, 22 June 2018, twitter.com/Lin_Manuel/status/1010165965378719745.

View Screenshot | Cite your source

Note: When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.

In-text website citation of a Twitter post

The in-text citation for a Twitter post is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the tweet used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Author’s Last Name).

Example

(Miranda).


How to cite Instagram in MLA 9

To cite an Instagram post, begin with the account holder’s name and their username in square brackets. In quotations, list the title of the photo, if it is given. If there is no title, write a brief description of the picture but do not place it in italics or quotation marks. The publisher, Instagram, is then listed in italics. Any other contributors (such as the photographer, if it is not the same as the account holder) are then listed, after which you will add the date the photo was published and the URL.

Reference List  
Structure

Account holder’s Last name, First name [Username]. “Photo Title” or Description. Instagram, other contributors, date photo was published, URL.

Example

National Geographic [@natgeo]. “Path of the Panther.” Instagram, photographed by Carlton Ward, 16 June 2018, www.instagram.com/p/BkFfT9xD6h6/?taken-by=natgeo.

View Screenshot | Cite your source

In-text website citation of an Instagram post

The in-text citation for an Instagram post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Instagram post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Author’s Last Name OR Name of Account).

Example

(National Geographic).


How to cite Facebook in MLA 9

To cite a Facebook post, begin with the account holder’s name or username. In quotations, list the title or caption of the post, if it is given. If there is no title or caption, write a brief description of the post, but do not place it in italics or quotation marks.
Examples: Image of Malcolm X, or, Muhammed Ali headshot.

The publisher, Facebook, is then listed in italics, after which you will add the date posted and URL.

Reference List  
Structure

Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. “Title or Caption of the Post” or Description of Post. Facebook, day month year of post, URL.

Example

GoatsofAnarchy. Loner goats become stallmates and fall in love. Facebook, 25 June 2018, www.facebook.com/thegoatsofanarchy/posts/2103455423030332:0.

Cite your source

In-text website citation of a Facebook post

The in-text citation for a Facebook post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Facebook post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Author’s Last Name OR Name of Account).

Example

(GoatsofAnarchy).


Social media and website comments

Citing the comments left on social media or a website begins with the commenter’s name or username. To indicate that you are citing a comment, follow the name with a period and then the words Comment on, followed by the title of the source (for example, the name of the article) in quotation marks. This is then followed by the title of the website in italics, and the publisher, if applicable. The date is then listed, followed by the URL, permalink, or DOI.

Reference List  
Structure

Commenter’s Last Name, First Name or Username. Comment on “Title.” Publisher, day month year, URL.

Example

Wester, Gary. Comment on “Climate Reality and I are headed to Berlin this June to train leaders who want to help solve the climate crisis.” Facebook, 2 May 2018, www.facebook.com/algore/posts/10155643818533865:0.

Cite your source

In-text citation of a social media comment

The in-text citation for a social media comment is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text Citation  
Structure

(Author’s Last Name).

Example

(Wester).


In-text Citations for Websites

In-text citations generally consist of parentheses and the last names of the authors or the first few words of the web page title.

Since there are no page numbers, unless the web page includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you don’t need to include any additional information.

When you have multiple authors, place them in the same order they are listed in the source.